The mollusca are one of the most diverse and largest of all the phyla of the animal kingdom.They are found in most of the earth’s environments from the deepest ocean abysses to the dry deserts. Molluscs vary from slow, shelled Pelecypods to the quick, fleshy squids. The mollusca include Cephalopods, Gastropods (snails), Pelecypods (bivalves), Scaphopods (tusk shells), Chitons, the extinct Hyotithids, and Monoplacophora.


Echinoderms are spiny-skinned, exclusively marine, organisms whose bodies can usually be divided into five parts around a central axis. They possess calcareous plates or ossicles,ambulacra (food) grooves and a water vascular system with tube feet. Paleontologists recognize many extinct classes within this phylum. There are five extant (living) classes within the Echinodermata:


  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthtropoda

Arthropods (jointed foot animals) possess a bilaterally symmetrical, segmented body and appendages, covered by a jointed chitinous exoskeleton, which provides both support and protection for muscles and organs. Living arthropods include: insects, spiders, scorpions,ticks, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles, ostracods, centipedes and millipedes. Extinct arthropod groups include the eurypterids and trilobites.